A study on the reproductive structures and characteristics of liveworts mosses and hornworts

Also, to tell one species of moss from another, or one species of liverwort from another, using a microscope is often the only way. By mitotic division of haploid spermatogenic tissue inside the sterile jacket haploid flagellated sperms are formed. The cycle starts with the release of haploid spores from the sporangium that developed on the sporophyte.

In the more familiar seed plantsthe haploid generation is represented only by the tiny pollen and the ovulewhile the diploid generation is the familiar tree or other plant. Diploid sporophyte is typically not photosynthetic and so is parasitic dependent on the gametophyte for its nutrition.

Seedless Plants

The seta is usually composed of parenchyma cells, stereids, and many times a well developed conducting strand. The setae of liverworts, in contrast to those of mosses, do not elongate until the sporangium is mature and the spores are ready for release.

Mitosis — a cell replicates its DNA and splits in two so that each new cell has the same amount of DNA as the original. The common name refers to the elongated horn-like structure, which is the sporophyte.


The dominant phase of the moss life cycle is the gametophyte haploid. On the other hand, thallose liverworts in which there is no such differentiation of cell function are called simple thallose liverworts. In addition, the name Hepaticophyta is frequently misspelled in textbooks as Hepatophyta, which only adds to the confusion.

Openings that allow the movement of gases may be observed in liverworts. At the bottom of the sporophyte closest to the interior of the gametophyteis a foot.

And two types of cell division: Liverworts have slightly larger, flat rubbery leaves usually growing much closer to the ground, their sporophytes are either like rubbery, green flowers seen on the drawing at the top of this page or globes on a stem seen below.

The zygote grows into a small sporophyte still attached to the parent gametophyte. In this latter type of reproduction, the gemmae—small, intact, complete pieces of plant that are produced in a cup on the surface of the thallus shown in [link] —are splashed out of the cup by raindrops.

These will swim through a film of rainwater to fuse with the egg.

Plant Divisions: Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts

These are produced in a more-or-less elaborated splash-cup on the upper epidermis. This alternation of diploid and haploid plants, sporophyte and gametophyte, is called Alternation of Generations. Luminous Moss Luminous moss Schistostega pennataalso known as Elfin Gold, glows green in the dark.

Some species grow in large numbers as tiny weeds in the soil of gardens and cultivated fields. The spore-producing cells will undergo meiosis to form haploid spores to disperse, upon which point the life cycle can start again.

In a bryophyte, all the conspicuous vegetative organs—including the photosynthetic leaf-like structures, the thallus, stem, and the rhizoid that anchors the plant to its substrate—belong to the haploid organism or gametophyte.

But they are liverworts. These pores superficially resemble the stomata of other plants.

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Both the central and surface cells of the capsule are sterile, but between them is a layer of cells that will divide to produce pseudo-elaters and spores. Asexual reproduction[ edit ] Some liverworts are capable of asexual reproduction ; in bryophytes in general "it would almost be true to say that vegetative reproduction is the rule and not the exception.

Hornwort spores are relatively large for bryophytes, measuring between 30 and 80 mm in diameter or more. Identify the main characteristics of bryophytes Describe the distinguishing traits of liverworts, hornworts, and mosses Chart the development of land adaptations in the bryophytes Describe the events in the bryophyte lifecycle Bryophytes are the group of plants that are the closest extant relative of early terrestrial plants.

Pleurocarps form a natural, monophyletic lineage of true mosses B. The gametophyte plant is produced by the germination of a haploid spore. Most antheridia are in terminal disk-shaped clusters to facilitate water capture for sperm transfer.

These cells are usually isodiametric, meaning, the cell is as long as it is wide. These vary in size, shape and number per cell, depending on species and are therefore useful for identification.

After successful fertilization, a diploid zygote is formed, which then begins to divide by mitosis to form a multicellular, diploid sporophyte. Biology Lab Exam II. STUDY. PLAY. -include liveworts, mosses, and hornworts -bear cones that are reproductive structures of the sporophyte generation-the sporophytes consist of several scalelike sporophylls arranged around a central axis.

description of pollen grain of a pine. BIO LAB QUIZ 2 - Phylum Bryophyta. STUDY. PLAY. Examples: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Marchantia. Gemmae. Liveworts produce small cup-shaped structure multicellular asexual reproductive structures; a miniature thallus that will produce a thallus exactly like the one that gave rise to.


The Study of Life. Introduction The Science of Biology The sporangium—the multicellular sexual reproductive structure—is present in bryophytes and absent in the majority of algae. the three main groups include the liverworts, the hornworts, and the mosses.

Liverworts are the most primitive plants and are closely related to the first. Apr 02,  · Plant Divisions: Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts. rather than seeds and their reproductive cycle involves two distinct, external stages, (essentially two different plants) which does not happen in plants with seeds.

2 thoughts on “ Plant Divisions: Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts ” Rosemary Hancock April 8, at am.

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The bryophytes are divided into three phyla: the liverworts or Hepaticophyta, the hornworts or Anthocerotophyta, and the mosses or true Bryophyta. Liverworts Some gametophytes form lobate green structures, as seen in Figure 2. Hornworts are one of three types of plants known as bryophytes, along with mosses and liverworts.

They are non-vascular, which means they lack the xylem and phloem tissue that other types of plants have for moving water and nutrients. As a result, they grow very low to the ground.

A study on the reproductive structures and characteristics of liveworts mosses and hornworts
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